Education, Sport and Culture Non-Formal Education Section
1998 Annual Report
The Non-Formal Education Section comprises two sub-sections both headed
by a Deputy Director. These
a) Adult Literacy and Mass Education.
b) Adult and Distance Education.
Adult Literacy and Mass Education Sub-Section is committed to the provision and promotion
of literacy, post basic/functional literacy and primary education (ZABEC) to adults
through schools and other suitable centres and facilities nation-wide in order to improve
the quality of life of the individuals in the first place and of the nation as a whole.
Adult and Distance Education Sub-Section is committed to the provision and promotion of
affordable, accessible and continuing quality education to out-of-school children, youths
and adults through a combination of appropriate non-formal and formal education
approaches and facilities to enable them to contribute fully to their own and the nation's
sub-sections formulate policies on Adult Literacy, Mass Education, Continuing and Distance
Education to create facilities and opportunities for learning outside the formal system,
and to co-ordinate and monitor the activities, personnel and organisations involved in the
programmes under their charge.
2. ADULT LITERACY AND MASS EDUCATION SECTION
2.1 BASIC LITERACY
This part of the report gives
an overview of the registration of centres in the regions and the activities taking place.
a) The programme aims at enabling literacy learners acquire the three Rs - reading,
writing and numeracy - and
them to be self - reliant.
b) It also focuses on a
participatory approach with the aim of empowering learners to utilise their acquired
literacy skills in real life situations.
Below is a table of enrolments in basic
literacy in 1998.
||NO OF CLASSES
||NO OF TUTORS
||NO OF LEARNERS
|4. MASH EAST
|5. MASH WEST
|8. MAT. SOUTH
The enrolment continues to be constant because of the economic woes of the country.
a) Most learners have attained the basic literacy skills in
the three Rs.
also revolved their activities around the self-reliant projects which address
of their lives.
Literacy Day was observed on 8 September.
a) Lack of funding for production and printing
of literacy materials
Lack of funds for monitoring and evaluation.
The current restructuring exercise has impacted negatively on the functioning
basic adult literacy programme at all levels.
2.1.6 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
funds from donors.
to increase its grant.
District literacy coordinators where there is a vacancy so that they remain two (2)
in each district.
This programme is so important that it should remain coordinated from
Head Office down to
the grassroots level.
There is need for more funds and logistical support for monitoring, training
of personnel and evaluation.
Non-viable centres should be de-registered.
All tutors of viable registered centres should be considered for remuneration.
The International Literacy Day should always be observed by all Regions.
3. REGENERATED FREIREN
LITERACY THROUGH EMPOWERING
COMMUNITY TECHNIQUES - (REFLECT)
is a new approach for teaching literacy introduced in the country
in 1996. It has been pilot-tested in seven (7) districts
evaluated in November, 1997.
main purpose of the programme is to empower participants with knowledge, skills and
attitudes through use
of participatory rural appraisal
tools such as graphics, that is, maps, calendars, diagrams.
programme being participatory in nature, is very popular among the learners who are being
tested on in the
seven (7) districts. The participants are deeply involved in the
3.5 POSSIBLE SOLUTION
More funds should be sourced from donors.
3.5.2 Government should give financial and
human resource support.
REFLECT, if given an opportunity, is a very viable approach which enables
people to solve
their own problems
through active participation.
3.7.1 REFLECT is a developmental empowering
participatory approach which can only be sustained and utilised by
support from government and
4.0 POST/FUNCTIONAL LITERACY
post literacy programme which, in the main, comprises the Zimbabwe Adult Basic Education
(ZABEC) and functional literacy
among participants. The
functional literacy is a practical,
also continues to attract many participants.
4.2.1 Post functional literacy aims at enabling the post
basic literacy graduates to
effectively participate in income
generating development projects using
the 3 Rs so as to improve the
quality of their lives.
||NO.OF REG. LITERACY CENTRES
postlfunctional literacy participants throughout the country are engaged in various projects including:-
Agriculture - Poultry, market gardening.
Metalwork - wire-making.
Home Economics -crocheting, Uniform making
There is lack of funding for the projects mentioned in 4.4 above.
4.5.2 Recent removal of functional literacy
officers from the regional offices will have a negative impact on the
monitoring and evaluating of the
4.6 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
4.6.1 Functional literacy officers should be
re-installed, at least one per region
4.6.2 Functional literacy officers need to be
oriented in the REFLECT approach which is very feasible in projects
Post and Functional Literacy Activities are the mainstay and ultimate target of the entire
adult literacy programme
and as such need the government's
and NG0s financial and moral support for their sustenance.
4.8.1 There is need to reinstate the functional literacy
officers in the regions who play a pivotal role in facilitating and
motivating literacy learners in
project oriented activities.
4.8.2 There is need to induct the
functional literacy officers (FLOS) in REFLECT approach which looks very usable in
project-oriented activities of the
THE ZIMBABWE ADULT BASIC EDUCATION COURSE (ZABEC
ZABEC, a primary school equivalent course for adults, is done in three years
adult learners can
write the Grade Seven public
The ZABEC programme provides an opportunity to
those adult learners who wish to pursue the academic path
and obtain Grade Seven certificates
in order to excel in other fields such as secondary, tertiary education or
promotions at work places.
The general enrolment of the ZABEC learners as a whole continued to be
progressive in all
the nine regions. (See
the ZABEC enrolment table
||NUMBER OF ZABEC 1,2,3 CLASSES
||NUMBER OF TEACHERS
||NUMBER OF ZABEC 1 LEARNERS
|3. Mash Central
|4. Mash. East
|5. Mash West
|7. Mat. North
|8. Mat South
For Harare Region, most learners opt to join the more popular Part-Time Continuing
5.4.1 The programme has continued to attract many adult
learners (men and women) who would have completed their
basic literacy and want to advance
with academic induction.
5.4.2 From the field visits and regional
reports, the ZABEC Ill learners wrote the 1998 Grade Seven public
examination and their pass rate was
5.5.1 ZABEC books are in scarce supply due
to lack of replenishment and lack of funding for printing.
5.5.2 ZABEC teachers lack induction in
handling adult learners.
5.6 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
There is need to source funds to print the
ZABEC manuscripts already available.
ZABEC programme is a very important component of the Adult Basic Education Programme which
be maintained specifically for the
learner. The materials are
written with a slant for adult learners which
It is recommended that:
be more ZABEC learning materials for the learners.
5.8.2 The government sources funds for printing
the available ZABEC reading material manuscripts.
5.8.3 Teachers who take ZABEC classes should
be regularly inducted in andragogics.
B1.0 ADULT AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SUB-SECTION
2.0 INDEPENDENT AND CORRESPONDENCE COLLEGES
segment of the report is on correspondence and independent colleges registered with the
Ministry and will
deal with the total number of
colleges, their achievements, shortcomings and problems encountered.
2.2.1 The major function of correspondence colleges is to prepare instructional
materials for and to provide tuition
via the print media to distance
learners engaged, mainly, in secondary school education.
2.2.2 Independent colleges offer face-to-face
tuition in secondary school level subjects to students outside the formal
2.3.1 There are seven registered correspondence colleges
though one of these has suspended its operations pending
normalising of its registration
with an overseas parent body. Two of the
colleges also offer tuition to students
wishing to complete the primary
2.3.2 Although no current statistical
information is available from all the colleges it
is estimated that they cater for
over 25 000 students.
2.4.1 Despite the difficulties experienced in
eliciting accurate statistical information
from college authorities, it can be
assumed that students registered
with them are benefiting as the institutions continue to be economically viable.
2.4.2 One of the colleges, in association with
a South African University, is offering tuition in degree courses.
2.4.3 A start has been made by one of the colleges to
offer tuition and training in fields other than academic
secondary school subjects.
2.5.1 A college claiming to offer
courses/diplomas that are internationally recognised was asked to refund fees to
students registered for these
2.5.2 Communication between the Ministry and
the Correspondence Colleges Committee has, during the course of
the year, been
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND POSSIBLE RECOMMENDATIONS
A method has to be worked out to ensure that instructional materials
prepared by colleges
are of acceptable
quality and up to date.
2.6.2 Funds have to be sourced to enable
Ministry officials and college authorities to hold workshops on general
administration and quality control.
With the rate of transition from primary to
secondary school for both girls and boys getting lower and the
drop-out rate increasing, distance
education institutions are poised to play a greater role in the provision of
2.8 INDEPENDENT COLLEGES
2.8.1 There are eighty-eight (88) registered colleges in
2.8.2 Distribution is as
2.8.3 The estimated total enrolment at these colleges is
15 000 students and the number of teachers/tutors
employed is about 520.
2.8.4 Nine new colleges were registered in
2.9.1 All the colleges, except
two the status of which was unclear, had paid the requisite fees by March 31.
2.9.2 At long last there are now colleges in
Mashonaland Central and Mashonaland West Regions
2.9.3 The Independent Colleges Committee met
2.9.4 There is now closer co-operation between
the Ministry and that of Higher Education and Technology.
augurs well for the future as
we can act more effectively on unregistered institutions.
2.9.5 A new format of the certificate of
accreditation was brought into use.
2.10.1 Except in the case of The Midlands Region the flow of statistical returns is
2.10.2 Head Office staff did not undertake any visits to Regions because of financial
2.10.3 Unregistered colleges still continue to sprout
though at lesser frequency.
2.11 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The Ministry and the Independent Colleges Committee should work together
to source funds
2.11.2 Every effort should be made to enable Head
Office personnel to visit Regions to improve the monitoring of
operations at colleges.
The fact that the number of colleges continues to increase (1 997:79; 1998:88)
demonstrates that these
institutions are playing an
important role in education and training. They
deserve the support of the Ministry of
Education, Sport and Culture.
3.0 PART-TIME CONTINUING EDUCATION
The report gives an overview of the 1998
activities pertaining to PTCEC programme and the Vacation School.
In the main, the report
looks at issues coordinated in the region and from Head Office. There is a slight
deviation from the norm since
there were no funds available to make visits and hold
workshops. The report
the general background information and
interpretation, achievements, problems, conclusion
3.2.1. The PTCEC programme aims at providing affordable and
accessible continuing primary and secondary education
mainly for the out-of-school youths
or school drop-outs and students who wish to supplement their '0' and 'A'
The table below shows the distribution of centres by Region and the total enrolment.
||NO. OF CENTRES
3.3.1 The enrolment has greatly increased from last year's
figure of 21 088 to
3.3.2 Enrolment figures are regulated by population
concentration in each region with Harare Region having almost half
of the total enrolment.
3.3.3 Women and girls constitute more than half of the enrolment.
3.3.4 Rural regions have low enrolment mainly because of the nature of operations
and population which is scattered.
3.3.5 A surprising phenomenon has been observed
with regional Offices establishing new centres as they wish.
3.4 VACATION SCHOOL PROGRAMME
3.4.1 Not so many vacation school courses were conducted
throughout the country compared to last year
3.4.2 Harare, Manicaland and Matabeleland North
had the highest number of centres which mounted the course
3.4.3 Although in the past rural schools had
problems of viability, Manicaland Regional rural centres managed to
conduct vacation courses simply
because of better planning.
3.4.4 There has been evidently a lot of
publicity for the programme by individual centres.
3.5.1 Considerable amount of success was recorded in the
regions in the area of increasing enrolment following
advertising by individual centres.
3.5.2 Most PTCEC centres have qualified staff;
the improved remuneration package offered has managed to attract
3.5.3 Generally, good pass rates were recorded by many centres throughout the
3.6.1 Lack of funds and adequate transport hampers the
effective supervision of centres for PTCEC and Vacation
School programme by both Head
Office and Regional Office personnel.
3.6.2 Some supervisors discourage students from
enrolling in Science practical subjects because of lack of financial
3.6.3 Lack of funds to mount workshops for
in-servicing personnel in the regions has been cited as a major problem.
3.6.4 In some centres the vacation school was
unpopular due to the tuition fees charged.
3.6.5 Some teachers have expressed
dissatisfaction over what they feel is a very wide gap between the
for supervisors and for the
3.7.1 There is need to continue to seek funds for mounting
3.7.2 The fact that there is a high demand for
more centres clearly demonstrates that the PTCEC programme is
fulfilling a real need. It should, therefore, be fully supported by the
Ministry with more economic and manpower
3.8.1 Annual training programmes for personnel working in
the programme should be conducted in each region
is need to consider the provision of Science kits to Non-Formal students so as to enable them to take
3.8.3 There is need to revise the circular on vacation
school courses with the view of reducing the gap between
teachers and supervisors rates on
one hand and lowering the fees paid by students per subject on the other
4.0 STUDY GROUPS
4.1.1 The report focuses on the activities which took
place in 1998.
4.2.1 The main objective of the study group system is
the acquisition of formal academic qualification at secondary school level by the out-of
population at an affordable
develop a life-long learning culture among both young and adult students.
table below shows the distribution by Region of study group centres, the number of
students enrolled and the number of mentors who supervise the centres.
||NO. OF STUDY GROUPS
enrolment has slightly decreased from last year's figure of 20575 to 20 438 because some
centres have become unviable.
programme enrols more male students and most of them are of school going age.
Region registers almost half the enrolment because of its high population concentration.
4.3.1 A total of 123 application for appointment forms for aided mentors were
processed during the year.
4.3.2 The 'Operation Study Group Clean Up' has resulted in many non-existent or non-viable
centres folding up.
4.3.3 There has been a great improvement
in the standard of record-keeping in most of the centres.
4.3.4 The acceptance of mentors into
teachers' training colleges on the strength of their qualifications and experience
the teaching field was greatly
welcomed by mentors.
4.3.5 Good pass rates were recorded in some study group centres. Some students have secured places at
4.3.6 One of the study groups in Harare
Region has opened a library for its students. It
is furnished with very
expensive and valuable books.
do not receive their allowances timeously and these allowances have not been revised for a
dampening the morale of mentors.
4.4.2 Study group students experience difficulties in
registering for public examinations where they pay more at
private colleges. Due to ZIMSEC regulations, headmasters or
examination centres are reluctant to register
candidates who do not poses a metal
I.D. card or passport. Both items are very
difficult to acquire over a short
period considering that the
majority of study group students are still young.
4.4.3 Since mentors are only paid for
actual attendance of students in a given
month, irregularity in attendance affects
their salary. High mobility, particularly in uniformed forces
departments, contributes to irregular attendance.
4.4.4 Some Correspondence Colleges' study
materials do not often conform to the demands of current syllabi and
therefore need to be changed.
4.4.5 Lack of regular training workshops
for Responsible Authorities and mentors is hampering the smooth operation
of study groups.
4.4.6 The Accounts Section at Head Office
has alleged that there is only six million dollars for mentors salaries next
year. It means that only about two hundred and forty
mentors can be engaged.
Study Group system continues to play an important role in complementing work done in
formal schools. Some mentors face many
problems and experience a great deal of trauma when they go for months
without salaries. However, it can be said despite hard conditions
the programme was sustainable and viable.
4.6.1 Decentralisation can expedite the appointment
and payment of mentors' salaries.
4.6.2 Zimbabwe Examination Council should
register more centres for non-formal students. The
problem could be
greatly alleviated if all primary
schools that host study groups are registered as examination centres.
4.6.3 It is the responsibility of
Responsible Authorities to discuss the issues of unsuitable study material with the
relevant correspondence college in
conjunction with Ministry of Education officials.
4.6.4 The Ministry should have a policy
where consistency in the payment of
mentors' salaries is adhered to. Salaries
should be consistent to "one
month in arrears" as stated in the C.E.O. Circular.
There is need to convince the
decision makers to make drastic
changes and help these mentors in future.
4.6.5 There is an urgent need to source
more funds since the budget cannot sustain mentors' salaries. Alternatively,
the operations could be downsized
by half, but this will be tantamount to disaster.
The report is going to focus on the activities of the Government Primary Correspondence
School, highlighting the
achievements, problems and
solutions. The report includes
recommendations on strategies to
be used in
The school's main objective is to
offer tuition by distance education and open learning methods at primary level
- Grade One to Four. The target group are the disadvantaged (by
distance, health problems and other reasons)
pupils who are unable to attend
table below shows enrolment by Grade and Sex during each Term.
There has been an upward swing in enrolment from 229 in Term One to 283 in
Term Three. The reason for this increase is not apparent.
There continues to be domination of white pupils in the school. Of the
283 pupils 192 are White, 86 Black, 3 Coloured and 2 Asians. With the expansion
programme, the school is undergoing, the ratio is expected to change.
5.4.1 Four school functions were held during the
year, namely, January Supervisors' Seminar, Sports Day, following
issues were discussed:-
Consultative Days and Open Day. The turn out at these functions was very
5.4.2 The Director of Finance at Head Office, the Deputy Director - Schools and
Non-formal education section
and the Correspondence School
administrative team held a meeting on 3
August, 1998 at the school. The
investment accounts held by the Correspondence school (CABS and BEVERLEY). The
school was given the green light to use the money but following the instructions
stipulated in the Financial Handbook for schools.
and retaining of tuition fees as from January 1999. The discussion was held on the
use and procedure of control of the fees.
Postage of bags:- A Franking machine would be the answer to the problem
of sticking stamps on bags.
One teacher attended a training workshop in Botswana on the use and
integration of media
in open and distance
learning. The workshop was effective in that the teacher
acquired knowledge and skills for use by other
5.4.4 Four teachers conducted
demonstration lessons and evaluation on the use
Correspondence School materials
by parents and supervisors at a
5.4.5 The school acquired a Franking Machine through Government Printers.
greatly assist in expediting the
postage system of the school.
4.5.6 The writing of Grade 5 materials went on very well during the course of the
year. This will see the enrolment of
the first Grade 5 class next year,
5.4.7 A tighter security measure has been
put in place to safeguard Correspondence School assets.
5.5.1 The school faced manpower shortage during the
year when a teacher went on maternity leave and the office
orderly retired. The SDA assisted the school by providing a
temporary teacher and employing the retired
5.5.2 Lack of transport or travel and
subsistence allowances greatly crippled the supervisory activities and materials
testing by teachers as they could
not visit the groups.
5.6.1 The acquisition of a Correspondence
School vehicle would go a iong way in alleviating the communication
5.6.2 The employment of more non-teaching
staff would enhance the quick production and dispatch of materials to the
there were drawbacks, the school is poised for greater expansion. It is ready for a change of face and
name to "Institute of Distance
and Open Learning".
5.8.1 The new materials being written need to be of
quality, This can only be realised through the acquisition of a
vehicle and funds to facilitate
visits for testing the new learning/teaching materials.
5.8.2 The employment of more support staff
to work in the preparation of materials (in stockrooms) would make the
sending off of work to the pupils
6.0 EX-REFUGEES AND
EX-COMBATANTS SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAMME
This segment of the report will
highlight the achievements of the Scholarship Programme which continued to see
a sharp increase in the number of
applicants seeking financial assistance.
main purpose of the programme is to provide scholarships for further education and skills
ex-refugees and ex-combatants and
to those of their children born during the war of liberation outside the
Government of Zimbabwe made available to the programme one million three hundred thousand
300 000) and the figures below show
how the money was spent in 1998:-
Number of recipients
Male = 327
Female = 103
= $1 300 000.00
Total expenditure end of Dec. 1998
= $1 295 913.95
Balance as at end of Dec 1998
= $ 4 086.95
N.B. Each learner/student receives a maximum of $3 00 per year.
6.4.1 The National Scholarship Selection Committee with members drawn from the
Ministries of Education, Sport and
Culture and that of Public Service,
Labour and Social welfare continued to work very efficiently. There was
effective communication between
Head Office and the Regional Offices.
6.4.2 The last group of the children born
during the war completed Form Four (4)
in 1998. Most
of them were
accommodated in the Zimbabwe
Foundation For Education with Production (ZIMFEP) schools.
Those who will
pass their ordinary level
examinations very well will proceed to Lower Sixth Form in 1999.
6.4.3 Four hundred application forms were
distributed to the Regions for 1999 selection.
6.5.1 Since the withdrawal of SIDA in March 1994, the
programme has been experiencing an acute shortage of funds.
6.5.2 The number of applicants is increasing daily.
6.5.3 The Government has no clear policy
on the time span for the scholarship programme.
35 000 recipients have so far benefited from the Scholarship Programme since its inception
in 1981. There is still, however, a sizeable
number of ex-combatants and some of their dependants who still need assistance. The programme still has a purpose to serve.
6.8.1 More funds be made available for the
continuation of the programme.
6.8.2 The Government should come up with a clear policy on the time span of the
programme as well as the role
played by the Department of War
Veterans Affairs in the Office of the President and Cabinet.
The Deputy Director, Mr. E.J.
Muti, retired from the Public Service with effect from 30 November 1998.
Division of School s and Non-Formal
Education would like to express their profound gratitude and appreciation
to Mr Muti for his invaluable
contribution to education and his selfless devotion to duty over many years.
wish him well in his retirement and
in any venture he may embark on.
8.0 GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1 As shown in this report, the
Non-Formal education Section is tasked with the responsibility of managing some key
programmes which promote the
acquisition of literacy and education by a wide spectrum of the population. With
the limited financial and human
resources at their disposal the staff in the Section have done the best they can to
fulfill the Sections Mission.
8.2 Universal adult literacy
and education has not yet been achieved in Zimbabwe and it is hoped the Government
will recognise that the Section is
effectively addressing the problems of education provision.
It could accomplish
much more if there was a more
positive national commitment to non-formal education in the form of
8.3 The impact of the current
nationalisation exercise in the Ministry on non-
formal education is yet to be assessed. It
would, however, be a disservice to
the educationally disadvantaged sectors in the country if programmes were
scaled down because of depleted
human and financial resources.
compiled by E. Chitofu,
Education services Centre]